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The Witwatersrand Gold Rush was a gold rush in 1886 that led to the establishment of Johannesburg, South Africa. This accounts for approximately 22% of all the gold that is accounted for today.[2]. The gold fields of the Witwatersrand Basin in South Africa are, by a landslide, the largest single gold producing district in the world. The scarp forms the northern edge of a 7-to-10-kilometre-wide (4–6 mi) plateau (or ridge) which rises about 200 m (660 ft) above the surrounding plains of the Highveld. It houses five faculties which comprise 34 schools. Within ten years, the town became the largest in South Africa, growing to be larger than Cape Town, which had been the largest city for over 200 years. Commonly known as “Wits”, the University of the Witwatersrand developed out of the South African School of Mines, set up in Kimberley in 1896. It might be related to the collision of the Kaapvaal Craton with the Zimbabwe Craton, eventually to become knitted together to form a single continental unit. [7] Thus, it is possible that if it had not been for the Vredefort meteor strike 2000 million years ago, we would either have never discovered the rich gold deposits beneath the Southern African surface, or they would have been eroded away during the uninterrupted removal of a several kilometres thick layer of deposits from the surface of the Southern African Plateau in the relatively recent geological past: i.e. The Witwatersrand (locally the Rand or, less commonly, the Reef) is a 56-kilometre-long (35 mi), north-facing scarp in South Africa. Most of the basin is deeply buried under younger rocks, but outcrops occur in Gauteng, the Free State, as well as in some of the surrounding Provinces. 10:30am - 6pm ET, Showroom & Workshop New York, NY 10017, Mining & Sourcing Not only are the remains of this impact among the oldest on earth, but it is also one of the largest meteor impacts to have left its imprint on the earth's geology of today. The “Central Rand Group” of deposits was brought to an abrupt end by massive outpourings of lava, which form the Ventersdorp lavas which erupted 2715 million years ago. It is this area in which the main gold reserves, the lifeblood of the province, are found. Cyanobacteria grew in relative abundance in these mineral rich waters. The institution moved to Johannesburg in 1904 and acquired full university status in 1922. The 200-by-350-km (124-by-217-mile) Witwatersrand Basin contains an 11-km- (7-mile-) thick sequence of lavas and sediments that are 3 billion years old. The area of the craton on top of which Johannesburg is now situated, became a vast riverine plain, which extended along the entire northern and western shoreline of the shrunken sea, in an arc extending from Evander in the east, through Johannesburg, Carletonville and then southwards to Klerksdorp and Welkom in the south-west. These rich gold bearing reefs stretch from 40 miles east of Johannesburg to 90 miles west and even further into the province of the Free State. The University of Witwatersrand is a leading public university strategically established in the industrial and commercial heart of South Africa. David Lewis-Williams, Professor emeritus of Cognitive Archaeology at the University of the Witwatersrand; specialist in Upper-Palaeolithic and Bushmen rock art; founder of the Rock Art Research Institute at the University of the Witwatersrand In retaliation, the uitlanders and the British mining interests joined forces to overthrow the Boer government. [17] The park is on the busy Main Reef Road, immediately west of Nasrec Road. Gold is found in the conglomerate strata of the younger members of the Supergroup, locally referred to as banket. Afrikaner commandos during the Second Boer War (1899–1902). #Witsie4Life Storytelling Series Wits Alumni Relations presents the #Witsie4Life storytelling series, shining a light on ordinary people doing extraordinary things. [6], The vast majority of the Earth's gold and other heavy metals are locked up in the earth's core. Sandy sediments brought in by rivers from the north started being deposited on the granite about 2970 million years ago. Committed to academic and research excellence, Wits generates high level scarce skills for a globally competitive world, while addressing local social and economic development. [6] The cause of these lava outpourings is a matter of speculation. Demuvawatha, Ratnapura The conglomerate was quickly traced east and westward for a total continuous distance of 50 km (31 mi) to define what became known as the “Central Rand Gold Field”. The Witwatersrand plateau consists of a 5000-to-7000-metre-thick (3.1–4.3 mi) layer of mainly sedimentary rocks laid down over a period of about 260 million years, starting approximately 2.97 billion years ago. The Witwatersrand Gold Rush initiated South Africa’s domination of world gold production. Gold occurs only along the northern and western margins of this basin, but not in a continuous band. The first phase, lasting 60 million years, consisted of sedimentary deposits in a shallow sea, conveniently named the “Witwatersrand Sea”. Located 45km south-west of Johannesburg in the Witwatersrand Basin, South Africa, South Deep is also the seventh deepest mine in the world, with a mine depth up to 2,998m below the surface. The gold bearing rocks are limited to 6 sites where Archean rivers from the north and west formed fan deltas, with many braided channels, before flowing into the “Witwatersrand Sea” to the south, where the earlier sediments that form the older rocks of the Witwatersrand Supergroup had been deposited. His brother Thomas was the first chairman. At the Natural Sapphire Company we specialize in providing our customers with the finest quality natural sapphires. It consists of a hard, erosion-resistant quartzite metamorphic rock, over which several north-flowing rivers form waterfalls, which account for the name Witwatersrand, meaning "ridge of white waters" in Afrikaans. Some of these gold bearing fan deltas are now at depths of 4 km below the surface. While the ultimate source of the gold in the Witwatersrand reef is unknown, the general disposition of the deposits is recognizable and continuous. The University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, also known as Wits University is a leading, internationally-ranked, research-intensive University located in Johannesburg, South Africa, the economic heartland of Africa. This massive goldfield is 100 kilometers (60 miles) long and 3.6 kilometers (12,000 feet) deep in certain places. existed among the natives of the area, it was not until 1886, when a poor Australian prospector named George Harrison staked the first claim, that the vast riches of the “Rand” were discovered. The Witwatersrand plateau consists of a 5000- to 7000-metre-thick layer of mainly sedimentary rocks laid down over a period of about 260 million years, starting approximately 2970 million years ago. Metals, head over to more precious Metal Details sandy sediments brought in by rivers from the 's. Sea level goldfield is 100 kilometers ( 12,000 feet ) deep in certain places or reef, the. 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